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Which forex brokers are legitimate? How to avoid the scams?.

December 28, | Forex Brokers Choosing a forex broker can be a very daunting task because the number of available options is overwhelming. With so many brokers advertising themselves as being the best, people go to specialized websites to read reviews and see broker rankings hoping they will find which broker is their best choice. The backtest results and theory for a scalper EA. The scalping expert advisor is available as a free download.

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En la capital existían cuatro escuelas, un colegio para el pueblo y una escuela para la familia real y sus parientes. El libro se convirtió en la herramienta primordial de los esfuerzos de alfabetización que, incluso llegaron a las provincias y pueblos lejanos. Durante la invasión japonesa un general japonés llevó caracteres móviles y libros a Japón, así Japón pudo desarrollar su imprenta, en cambio, la imprenta coreana retrocedió a partir de ese momento, se volvió a la madera para la fabricación de tipos móviles y cada la producción de libros decayó.

A pesar de las dificultades Corea supo desarrollar e incluso exportar sus técnicas de imprenta. A partir del siglo I d. El pergamino comenzó a competir con el papiro, se cree que surgió en Pérgamo, en la actual Turquía. El alfabeto griego se desarrolló en el siglo VI y V a. El uso de la escritura se incrementó en Atenas hacia el siglo V a.

En la Roma imperial los escritos podían encontrarse en todas partes. La administración cotidiana produjo un flujo constante de documentos, la alfabetización rudimentario era habitual, incluso en las clases bajas, lo que provocó que en el siglo I d. En el siglo III d. Aunque el códice tenía claras ventajas, el rollo siguió en uso durante varios siglos.

La monarquía inglesa continuó usando rollos para registrar sus leyes hasta la edad media. No obstante, el valor del libro es perdurable a través del tiempo. El libro comprendido como una unidad de hojas impresas que se encuentran encuadernadas en determinado material que forman un volumen ordenado, puede dividir su producción en dos grandes períodos: La coexistencia del desarrollo de la imprenta con el comienzo del movimiento humanista y la reforma luterana impulsaron el crecimiento de la industria del libro, puesto que vieron en él un medio de difusión masivo.

En medio siglo, la segunda mitad del siglo XV, el libro impreso se convirtió en un importante negocio internacional, los libreros e impresores fueron ante todo empresarios. La superioridad de la imprenta sobre la xilografía fue incuestionable, la escritura era regular, impresión a ambas caras, rapidez de impresión y la posibilidad de volver a utilizar los caracteres para imprimir otros textos. Se puede establecer una cronología del libro antiguo dividida en siglos, tomando como base ciertas características comunes en un siglo determinado: El mismo libro, se convierte en un avance que da distinción a los lectores como progresistas en un siglo en que el progreso es una meta social ampliamente deseada y a la que pueden acceder por igual nobles y plebeyos, creando una meritocracia de nuevo cuño.

A pesar de lo anterior, la minoría que cultiva el gusto por el libro se encuentra entre los nobles y las clases altas y cultivadas de los plebeyos, pues sólo estos grupos sociales saben leer y escribir, lo que representa el factor cultural adicional para el inevitable auge del libro.

Otro importante factor que fomentó el aprecio por los libros fue la Censura , que si bien solía ejercerse también en periodos anteriores a los siglos XVII y XVIII, es precisamente en esta época cuando adquiere mayor relevancia, puesto que los libros se producen por millares, multiplicando en esa proporción la posibilidad de difundir ideas que el Estado y la Iglesia no desean que se divulguen.

La draconiana medida fue complementada con un decreto que prohibía a cualquiera que no estuviera autorizado a publicar libros de tema religioso. En , otro decreto obligaba a los editores a obtener autorizaciones antes y después de publicar cada libro y en , se ordenó vigilar incluso los lugares libres de censura.

En tanto la censura se volvió inefectiva e incluso los censores utilizaron dicha censura como medio para promover a astutos escritores y editores. Las signaturas se ordenan y se cosen por el lomo. Luego este lomo es redondeado y se le pega una malla de tela para asegurar las partes. Toda esta tarea se realiza en serie, inclusive la encuadernación. En el caso de que las hojas no sean alisadas mediante un proceso de corte, se habla de un libro intonso.

Los importantes avances en desarrollo de software y las tecnologías de impresión digital han permitido la aplicación de la producción bajo demanda en inglés el acrónimo P. Esto es posible solo por estar dados de alta en los sistemas de producción de compañías internacionales como Lightning Source, Publidisa, Booksurge, Anthony Rowe, etc. A finales de comenzó a desarrollarse lo que hoy denominamos libro digital o electrónico. En se produce un importante avance, ya que sale a la venta el primer libro electrónico: Random House's Electronic Dictionary.

En el año se recogían los siguientes datos: Una investigación que tomó como base los libros de la Biblioteca del Congreso de Estados Unidos , con sede en Washington, D. Vladimir Lenin resulta el tercero, con , seguido de Abraham Lincoln , con , y de Napoleón I, con La siguiente es Juana de Arco , con Da Vinci, sin embargo, se lleva la palma en la lista de científicos e inventores, superando a Charles Darwin , Albert Einstein y Galileo Galilei.

En las bibliotecas se suele utilizar el Sistema Dewey de clasificación por materias. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Para la localidad aragonesa, véase Libros Teruel. Since a lot of market makers such as XM Group , Ava Trade or Exness are legitimate brokers they are well regulated and established companies in good legal standing that have a reputation to defend they will pay out any winnings and process all withdrawals. While they are suitable for small accounts because small winnings are not an issue for such large international brokers, they are not recommended for large accounts because of the conflict of interest.

If a market maker is faced with a trader that wins large amounts of money on a regular basis it will have to hedge the risks by covering the trades with a liquidity provider. However, the dealing desk will have difficulties in replicating the trades instantly, especially during news trading or if the trader is scalping. This may force the broker to resort to "tricks" such as requotes, poor execution, slippage, platform malfunctioning or even stop loss hunting.

While reputable market makers will not engage in such shameful tactics, they may still be forced to limit your activity during news time and will not allow scalping. In the end, the broker wants to make a profit and if it is losing money with a client it must do something to change that. Hedging the trades is a solution, but the market makers are less prepared to efficiently do that than ECN brokers.

Because of the way they operate, market makers will usually advertise themselves in a way that attracts amateur traders and is not attractive for professionals. Casual traders are the most profitable for market makers as they have a very small rate of profitability. ECN stands for Electronic Communication Network and is an electronic system that connects retail traders, brokers and liquidity providers in an exchange-like environment.

An ECN broker is a forex broker that processes all orders electronically directly to its liquidity providers without a dealing desk. The broker's platform is connected directly to the liquidity providers usually big banks such as JP Morgan, Barclays or City and the trades are executed against the liquidity provider offering the best quote.

A good ECN broker uses many liquidity providers in order to have lower spreads for its customers, since the system will connect the trader with the best quote available in the system.

Such brokers are also known as STP brokers Straight-Through Processing since they process the trade directly to a third party instead of being market makers.

They are also referred to as "No Dealing Desk" brokers. When using a STP broker your final counterparty will be a third party, which is one of the broker's liquidity providers.

This means the broker is not having a conflict of interest with you because it will not make money from your losses. But how does this work? By giving you direct access to the network of liquidity providers to which the broker is connected to, you trade on behalf of the broker directly against the liquidity providers offering the best quotes. I know this may sound a bit confusing and hard to understand, but think of it as if you are trading directly from the broker's account against the liquidity providers.

If your trade is profitable the broker takes money from the liquidity providers and when your trade is a loser the broker will give money to the liquidity providers. This means that whatever you win, you win from the liquidity providers, not from the broker, and whatever you lose, you lose to the liquidity providers, not to your broker.

Ok, so if a STP broker allows you to trade directly against its liquidity providers, how does the broker make its money? There are two ways for the broker to do that:. Let's say the broker adds a 1 pip markup. If the liquidity provider has a spread of 1 pip, the platform will display a spread of 2 pips. If you make a trade and market moves pips in your favor you will win the value of 98 pips minus the 2 pips spread and your broker will win 1 pip the markup. The liquidity provider will lose 99 pips minus its 1 pip spread.

In the opposite situation, when the market moves pips against you, you will lose pips plus the 2 pips spread and your broker will still win 1 pip the markup. In both situations the broker wins, so there is no conflict of interest between you and your broker as the broker makes money when you trade, not matter if you win or if you lose.

In this case the broker makes its money out of the commissions for allowing you to trade directly against the liquidity providers without any markup at very low spreads the actual interbank spreads. In both situations, the broker is not your final counterparty and it is not losing money when you make a profit. An ECN broker will always prefer for its traders to win, because this will ensure you trade more volume and for a longer period of time.

The broker makes money only from the volumes you trade, so it will be happy to have a winning trader. This is why it is highly recommended to open an account with such broker when you intend to deposit large amounts of money and trade high volumes. It is important to understand that most retail forex brokers are market makers.

While the ECN model is profitable for the broker on both winning and losing traders, it also carries additional costs and generates less profits from losing traders. The broker must run a very powerful computer network with high speed connections and maintain a good relationship with several liquidity providers in order to be part of a good ECN with low spreads and fast execution.

In addition to that, the broker's markup or commission is only a part of the total spread because the liquidity provider has its own spreads. If a trader loses all his money by paying spreads assuming he doesn't win or lose a single pip during his trading sessions until he goes bust , a market maker would take all the trader's money.

In contrast, a STP broker will win only a part of it, while the liquidity providers will earn the rest. Considering the above, it is no wonder why most brokers prefer to operate only as market makers and sometimes hedge the trades of very profitable traders. The costs associated with direct market access are also the reason why micro and mini accounts are always provided in a market-making environment where the broker will always be your final counterparty.

Such traders are also very risky to trade against, so the ECN model is in the broker's advantage because it is risk free. This is why some brokers are giving direct market access to the traders that choose to open the standard or VIP accounts. The DMA accounts will always have fractional pips the spread can be 2.

Real market conditions where liquidity providers compete against each other to offer better spreads will always result in variable spreads that tend to be lower when there is little volatility and will increase in time of high volatility such as during news. Mini lots and micro lots are never used by liquidity providers. In the following paragraph I will list three brokers that offer very competitive STP accounts for big traders. They are the ones I consider to be the best choices available right now, in no particular order.

The three broker accounts I will present below are very reliable choices for high rollers. I am trading with all of them and I am very pleased with their service, since I had no major issues so far. It is worth to check them all and decide for yourself which broker is a better choice for you. It is probably the best ECN broker in the world and the ideal broker for big traders who want real market access with very low spreads.

As an Australian financial services company, IC Markets is a very safe broker able to handle very large accounts. It offers real direct market access thanks to a pool of Tier 1 liquidity providers that include the following banks: Since all trades are processed directly to the liquidity providers, IC Markets has no problem with scalping.

Overall, IC Markets is a top tier broker based on a very solid jurisdiction. If you want to find out more about it you can visit their website: Vincent and The Grenadines. While Hot Forex offers many account types to cater to all type of investors, we recommend the VIP account for large investors. The VIP account is directly connected to their network of liquidity providers and allows you to trade directly on the interbank market.

They can go as low as 0. This is the equivalent of a 0. XM Group is a group of regulated online brokers. In January XM Group had over , clients worldwide, making it one of the largest forex brokers in the world. While some traders may be surprised that I reccomend a broker based in Cyprus and also a Market Maker for large accounts, the truth is that after trying lots of brokers I ended up doing most of my trading with XM Group.

This broker never failed me and I am trading large volumes with them for over two years already. XM Group is based in Cyprus because the people behind this broker are Cypriots themselves. The founder and CEO of the company is Mr.

Constantinos Cleanthous and all the management is comprised of Cypriots as well, so it was just a normal decision to set the company in their home contry. If you never had an account with XM Group , then I really think you should open one and try them, because chances are you will stick with them for most of your trading like I did.

This is the broker that anyone must try. XM Group offers three account types, the Micro account, the Standard Account with no commission but with higher spreads and the Zero Account with commission but with very low spreads.

All accounts are very competitive and it is hard to say which one has lower costs. The XM Group Accounts stand out for many reasons. Here are some of the benefits for big investors:. XM Group partners with investment grade banks and uses segregated accounts to ensure security.

This means you can trade huge amounts of money. Leverage applies to all the EU regulated entities of the group. Leverage depends on the financial instrument traded. XM Group claims that

What is considered a large forex account?

This is the equivalent of a 0. I am trading with all of them and I am very pleased with their service, since I had no major issues so far.

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